British Petroleum and Synthetic Genomics extracted DNA from such oil-containing geologic formations (biological organisms living in crude oil) and applied to them by DNA sequencing. They took DNA from the cells of microbes living in underground reservoirs of oil, like bacteria or viruses, and then began to develop them in a lab environment to identify the chemical and genetic properties.
BP and SG able to develop biological processes for transfer crude oil, which could lead to an increase in the degree of recovery. That is, their goal was to develop new microbes created in the laboratory of genomes, which could increase the flow of oil and gas extracted from the reservoir. For oil companies like BP, more oil and gas “extracted their bowels translates as” more profit “. This process is known as microbial enhanced oil recovery methods (MEOR).
Microbiological method of enhanced oil recovery involves the use of microorganisms for the additional extraction of oil from oil-bearing reservoir. These organisms are introduced there through the oil wells that they produce by-products that stimulate the output of oil. Since these processes contribute to the mobility of oil and maintaining its flow, then using them out of the hole can extract large amounts of oil.
Microorganisms produce a slimy substance called surfactant (surface-active substances). These substances break down oil. Because they are naturally produced biological organisms, they are called bio-surfactant. They act roughly the same slippery to the touch detergents, oil and help more freely out of the country rocks and fracturing.
Reduction of oil viscosity
Oil is a thick liquid, possessing very high viscosity, meaning it has a low turnover.Microorganisms contribute to the splitting of the molecular structure of crude oil, making it more liquid and readily retrievable.
Generation of carbon dioxide
As a byproduct of its vital microorganisms produce carbon dioxide. Over time, the gas accumulates and begins to displace the oil, squeeze it out of the rocks.
Credits and 
Oil Recovery Factor: also called overall hydrocarbon displacement efficiency, the volume of hydrocarbon displaced divided by the volume of hydrocarbon in place at the start of the process measured at the same conditions of pressure and temperature.
Recovery Factor = Gp/O G I P
Ev= macroscopic (volumetric) displacement efficiency; and
ED= microscopic (volumetric) hydrocarbon displacement efficiency.
 Michael Edward “The World Vision Portal”
 Zinan Li’s Blog “Dialogs between Reservoir Engineer and Chemist about superabsorbent Polymer
 Synthetic Genomics “ Press release: June 13, 2007, Synthetic Genomics Inc. and BP to Explore Bioconversion of Hydrocarbons into Cleaner Fuels
Craig Venter Institute